Komarov Artem clarified that forge welding is one of the oldest methods of metal bonding. Its use was the only method of working with steel for several millennia before the advent of foundry. Today, handicraft specialists are engaged in this craft.
The process occurs by heating, which creates inextricable bonds of metal components. When this action is achieved, both parts overlap and the weld is completed by hammering or pressure.
Using Flux in Forge Welding
To remove foreign substances such as dirt and oxides, etc., borax or sand is sprayed onto the connecting surfaces. The flux prevents oxidation, spreads through the metal, holding air, lowers the melting point so that it can be removed when the metal is driven from the weld.
Modernization of forge welding
Artem Komarov emphasized that with the invention of modern welding processes such as electric welding and gas welding methods during the industrial revolution, manual forge welding has been largely replaced, although automatic forge welding is a common manufacturing process.
Usage and Applications
- It is used to connect individual pieces of metal into more important and specific metal products such as chains, swords, railroad rods, gates, bars and more. It is also used in the manufacture of tableware and agricultural equipment.
- It is also used to make pipes from plates (rotating plates).
- In addition, the formation of cylindrical shapes by forge welding and longitudinal joints by forge welding, etc.
Working Method of Forge Welding
The forge welding process is mainly carried out in four steps.
- First, the connecting ends are placed in a forging furnace for heating and heated until fully ductile.
- After it is fully heated, it is removed and a flux is sprayed onto it, usually a drill is used as a flux, which acts as a low-temperature glass screen that prevents the metal from oxidizing.
- After using the flux, the metal is placed back in the forging furnace. It heats up again to a bright yellow state.
- When the metal turns bright yellow, the metal part is removed from the forging furnace to be connected and pressurized with a hammer or hydraulic press, thereby completing the welding process.
Connected metals and their thickness
- Wrought iron and low carbon steel with a lower percentage of carbon (about 0.2%) can be satisfactorily welded.
- It is possible to join metals with a thickness of about 30 mm.
Despite the fact that modern welding has replaced forge welding, it still remains popular and in demand, Artyom Komarov summed up.